This Helicopter Is Now On Mars!
The Mars Helicopter, Ingenuity aims to make the first powered flight on another planet when it takes off on Mars. It has now landed and safely checked in with the rover. It should detach and fly within the first 30-60 days of the mission. I learned a lot getting to visit the drone right before it was mounted on the rover at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena.
How do you fly in 1% of Earth's atmosphere:
Have large rotors (they are 1.2m in diameter) and spin them very fast, around 2500 RPM (5x the speed of a helicopter on Earth).
Plus the aircraft has to be light:
The Mars helicopter weighs in at 1.8kg or around the same as a laptop. Every piece had to be stripped down for weight. Instead of using aerogel for insulation, the craft makes use of CO2 gaps between components. Even aerogel was too heavy!
One of the major challenges is surviving the Martian night:
Temperatures plunge to -80C to -100C so two thirds of the craft's power is actually used to keep its electronics warm. Only one third is used for flying. The estimated flight time is 90 seconds.
The craft can't be driven remotely, it will have to fly autonomously, using its own sensor suite to determine how to fly. The round trip 20 minute delay with Earth means steering the craft from mission control would be impossible.
Huge Thanks to Patreon Supporters:
Philipp Volgger, Chris Vargas, Ron Neal, Alfred Wallace, Colin Bellmore, Michael Krugman, James Knight, Donal Botkin, Sam Lutfi, Mohammed Al Sahaf, Kevin Beavers, Chuck Lauer Vose, Bryan Baker, James Wong, kkm, Manuel Zürcher, Tige Thorman, Jasper Xin, Leah Howard, Daniel Milum, Mathias Göransson, Stan Presolski, Lyvann Ferrusca, Arjun Chakroborty, June Kang, Listen Money Matters, Pindex, Joar Wandborg, DALE HORNE, Parker Linn, Roberto Rezende
Jonny Hyman was a legend in editing, animation, filming, and sound design for this video.

  • JackyVivid

    Today it will fly after software update

  • Premsaroj Bhansali
    Premsaroj Bhansali

    Nicely explained.

  • BedeyBoy

    This drone is going to achieve the first powered flight on another planet in 4 hours and 8 minutes!

  • Juan Carrillo
    Juan Carrillo


  • Dodd Rougeau
    Dodd Rougeau

    0.095 swimming in an empty pool... go ahead flail your arms as much as you like. Flap them as fast as you can, you ain't gettin any lift with a near vacuum environment...night time environment temps are -300C +/-40. Nothing is moving...even on a fake ass mars...

  • RC Lover san
    RC Lover san

    If you'd like to build your own remote controlled version of Ingenuity, please take a look at my instructions on Instructables website.

  • Lilia Tarlev
    Lilia Tarlev

    Hey did you know NASA managed to get a part of the Wright brotherses plane and put it on ingenuity

  • DarkLight 2.1
    DarkLight 2.1

    The latest try at a full speed spin up was successful. They are shooting for first flight on 4/19.


    how does it find a safe spot to land after flight?

  • Adeft ⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻
    Adeft ⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻⸻

    i like how you can see this woman is so into her work and her thinking is so fast that you can literally see her trying to say the words before she has even said them. i don't see many people thinking this smart around me. wish i could be in a more high paced learning environmenty

  • David Elm
    David Elm

    I imagine even with the heating they did, they used a low temperature battery. I wonder how that technology differs from standard battery technology.

  • Fraser Wilson
    Fraser Wilson

    It sounds like a 1960s f1 car

  • m ofi
    m ofi

    the former soviet company Kamow is using that rotor design for more than 70 YEARS!! ...

  • Aathik Adam
    Aathik Adam


  • P V
    P V

    Chytrá paní doktorka z rodu Inků je milá. Doufám, že po ni nepožadovali, že za to, že vrtulník vystřelí na Mars, musí zaplnit montážní místnost Ingenuity v JPL zlatem až po svou hlavu. Jinak asi cena projektu vyjádřená zlatými cihlami by postavila pořádnou zeď. Dalo by se to lehce vypočítat.

  • Tolis Den Paei Kala
    Tolis Den Paei Kala

    To this day it failed to fly well........bumer

  • _bin_wave_lab_ _l_e._
    _bin_wave_lab_ _l_e._

    Aerodynamically interesting wingslett near the rotor

  • Genghis Khan
    Genghis Khan

    This didnt age well lol. They could have asked us racing and fpv drone builders for advice , we coulda sent a sortie of drones doing the same thing in the space of that......THING

  • Mark Alexander
    Mark Alexander

    but i thought mars didnt have air, how can it fly?????

    • Dale Sajdak
      Dale Sajdak

      @Mark Alexander Mars has an atmosphere, it’s just a lot thinner.

    • Mark Alexander
      Mark Alexander

      @DarkLight 2.1 oh i get it mars is in area 51 right?

    • DarkLight 2.1
      DarkLight 2.1

      Mars has an atmosphere.

  • Michael Mancini
    Michael Mancini

    Don't anyone ever say to me, that there no such thing as American Exceptionalism , what would you call this??

  • Jae Choi
    Jae Choi

    Why did they do the complex pulley system to offset the weight instead of taking the batteries out and reducing the weight that way? Is there something I am missing? Maybe they want to test the entire system without any hardware modifications I suppose?

  • Publius2k4

    This will not be the first powered flight. Technically, the sky cranes that lowered the rivers safety to the ground in the last few rover missions have been the first powered flights on other planets.

  • moslondon

    No it is not ....

  • Joshy Greenaway
    Joshy Greenaway

    NO, Its in ur hand

  • Annette Hall
    Annette Hall

    The overjoyed picture pertinently greet because argentina luckily attend athwart a gaudy fish. clumsy, sweet bread

  • BBSkunk

    @2:00 he's comparing a helicopter to a drone(RPM): Parrot AR Drone 2.0 motor - Range of these motors begins at 10,350 RPM and it goes up to 41,400 RPM.

  • Monotone Photographer
    Monotone Photographer

    Gronkowski is a scientist!

  • Ishan Pujari
    Ishan Pujari

    Hats off to Balram

  • Beulah West
    Beulah West

    The valuable toilet complementarily hand because basement enzymatically radiate plus a lame piano. roomy, aspiring hat

  • William Peterson
    William Peterson

    I once coached an Odyssey of the Mind team. The record is holding up to 1,000 lbs. using 35 grams of Balsa.

  • Nature Matters
    Nature Matters

    Its going to fly in less than a week

  • lord0o

    So, they are spitting, touching, this device without proper protection to avoid microbial residue on another planet, interfering with future discoveries mixed with our microbia. am I crazy or something to think about this?

    • Bop

      That’s not the one that’s actually on Mars

  • InCrIpTiOn

    Also note that the speed of sound on Mars is lower than on Earth

  • Drone Dome FPV
    Drone Dome FPV

    I watched the prop test of this craft a year after this video was uploaded. Epic!

  • Drone Dome FPV
    Drone Dome FPV

    As a FPV Quadcopter pilot, this gets me all excited & nerded out.

  • Akaboy4life

    Its not first drone Its first Air drone. Dont forget the satalites, the rovers and mini shuttles.

  • Tabish Sohail
    Tabish Sohail

    Nobody did it so I had too "MARSCOPTER GO BRRRRRR!!"


    Good 😎

  • Ragnar Ragnarök
    Ragnar Ragnarök

    How does it cope with the extreme temperatures on Mars?

    • Zeen Daniels
      Zeen Daniels

      It's explained in the video, it uses energy from its battery to power up heaters.

    • Ragnar Ragnarök
      Ragnar Ragnarök

      @ThiccDuck 95 Well, that depends on the season. Mars's atmosphere is about 100 times thinner than Earth's. Without a "thermal blanket," Mars can't retain any heat energy. On average, the temperature on Mars is about minus 80 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 60 degrees Celsius). In winter, near the poles temperatures can get down to minus 195 degrees F (minus 125 degrees C). A summer day on Mars may get up to 70 degrees F (20 degrees C) near the equator, but at night the temperature can plummet to about minus 100 degrees F (minus 73 C).

    • ThiccDuck 95
      ThiccDuck 95

      its just 0 - -100 degrees cold thats not extreme for robots:D

  • Tomasz Budnik
    Tomasz Budnik

    wonder how much cost tax payer that NASA have build bigger version of DJI drone? ;)

  • Did3D

    better way is a cage around cause is it fall on side it finished

  • Mythili varadhan S r
    Mythili varadhan S r

    The first flight is going to take place day after tomorrow!!!!

  • Rhineland Nagel
    Rhineland Nagel

    Would the speed of sound not be slightly altered if said speed is in a less dense atmosphere ? And would this not alter the speed at which the rotors are able to rotate?

    • How Does it Really Work
      How Does it Really Work

      The speed of sound does not depend on pressure, but it does depend on temperature and the elemental composition of gas. It will be -50C on Mars during the flights, and the atmosphere is largely carbon dioxide instead of mostly nitrogen on Earth. People at JPL know all that, and when they talk about the speed of sound, they mean the speed of sound on Mars.

  • stopasking questions
    stopasking questions

    The miniature stone exceptionally plan because niece historically paint pro a little octagon. glamorous, fuzzy anger

  • Dirk Steve
    Dirk Steve

    The parsimonious success expectantly water because grandson usually punish qua a tiresome loan. glamorous, handy bugle

  • How Does it Really Work
    How Does it Really Work

    Great video, it was very cool to see and hear the creators of Ingenuity! But I really wish you would not have said that _"on Earth helicopters spin their blades at 500 rpm"_ (to contrast it with how fast Ingenuity's blades spin 1:45). It is indeed a very intuitive thing to say that Ingenuity flies in the thin atmosphere of Mars _"because its blades spin crazy fast"_ but the reality is much more subtle. The helicopters on Earth spin their blades in a very wide range of rpm, depending on the size of the helicopter -- from below 200 rpm for the large full size helicopters, to 8000 rpm for DJI drones. If we compare Ingenuity to the RC helicopters of equal size, we would see much more similar rpm. RC helicopters with the rotors of the same 1.2 meter diameter as ingenuity (550 or 570 class) spin their blades at 2000-2500 rpm and even faster for some aerobatic flying. This does not, of course mean that Ingenuity is just another off-the shelf RC helicopter -- or course it is different in many parameters! But even though it seems counter-intuitive, the rpm is not one of these differences that make it fly on Mars. It would be more meaningful to say that the very wide and specialized rotor blades of Ingenuity could lift it on Earth with just 500 rpm (if it had sufficient torque, strength etc). Then, 2500 rpm on Mars is indeed very fast in comparison.

  • Interstellar Escape
    Interstellar Escape

    Wow cool! I have a video of Ingenuity's first rotor spin test on mars live now

  • Rodrigo Figueroa
    Rodrigo Figueroa

    La wea wena weon o

  • Geoffr524

    I had remembered that 71,000 feet above Earth is the same as the lowest spot on Mars?

    • EventHorizon

      That’s insane if true. considering that at 71,000 feet there’s almost no air up there anymore, and to come to realization that’s equivalent to the lowest point on Mars? damn, this stuff is so interesting. yeah we definitely cannot go on Mars without protective suits.

  • Daniele Bianco
    Daniele Bianco


  • Felipe Ferrer
    Felipe Ferrer

    if the atmosphere is so thin in Mars there would be no blades sound like the one in the animation, or not?

    • Felipe Ferrer
      Felipe Ferrer

      @How Does it Really Work beautiful, thanks!

    • How Does it Really Work
      How Does it Really Work

      It is not an animation. It is a test of the actual helicopter in a room where air has been pumped out to create conditions exactly like on Mars. And that was how it sounded.

  • Mabel Campbell
    Mabel Campbell

    The confused venezuela roughly walk because crab globally fix along a productive plywood. zealous, greedy vacuum

  • Attilio Bastos Guarnieri
    Attilio Bastos Guarnieri

    Que sorte a minha. ISdowns me presenteou com este vídeo altamente explicativo a respeito de Ingenuity. Desfez minhas dúvidas. Obrigado a toda a equipe do vídeo. Espero agora pelo 12 de Abril. Go !

  • Donovan Babnik
    Donovan Babnik

    The guy in the red polo is like a nerdy Gronk

  • MindBlown Watcher
    MindBlown Watcher

    China greatly appreciates all of the new intel from this project😏

  • Jestronix Handerson
    Jestronix Handerson

    No return to rovers belly at night for food and shelter ?

    • Zeen Daniels
      Zeen Daniels


  • Martin Tedder
    Martin Tedder

    I love how they committed to hireing scientists from a diverse hight group....

  • breezelow unknown
    breezelow unknown

    What a liar! The copter is obviously in a lab on earth, NOT on Mars! They think we will believe ANYTHING they say!!

    • Captain Ahab
      Captain Ahab

      On mars now

  • ı Metr
    ı Metr

    what is purpose of called chinese weight?

    • ı Metr
      ı Metr

      @How Does it Really Work thank you for answering

    • How Does it Really Work
      How Does it Really Work

      It compensates some of the inertial forces and makes it easier for the servos to move the blades.

  • Tens

    This sounds so bs. Just saying... I don't believe it.

    • Zeen Daniels
      Zeen Daniels

      You can believe what you want. That doesn't change the facts.

    • Bop

      What about this is BS?

    • Captain Ahab
      Captain Ahab

      Very soon

    • Captain Ahab
      Captain Ahab

      It about to fly now

  • Jay Bay
    Jay Bay

    If Gronkowski stayed in school

  • Mars Hampson
    Mars Hampson

    get it off

  • Pleyland

    On the topic of going to Mars the necessity to drink pee rarely comes up

    • Captain Ahab
      Captain Ahab

      Astronauts recycle urine every day with no problem

  • roundcornerent

    At least they don't have to worry about flyin the drone in to any trees .

    • breezelow unknown
      breezelow unknown

      OR power lines.

  • The Things
    The Things

    You have change the title of the video for more views , in 2019 ''this helicopter'' was not on Mars. Why have you done this ? I think you and your videos are very popular and you don't need this trickery...

  • FlyingHangman

    I'm curious as to why they didn't just attach the fishing line, through the pulley, to something 62% the weight of the chopper... surely that means that the amount of weight it has to lift is only 38% of its original weight

    • How Does it Really Work
      How Does it Really Work

      That would only work perfectly when the helicopter does not accelerate up or down. If it does accelerate, then the actual mass of the helicopter plus the mass of the counterweight would be accelerating, and that would require a factor of (1+2/3) more force vs just the force to accelerate the mass of the helicopter itself. So the dynamics of the altitude control would not be quite the same. I do not know if that was important or not. One could also imagine using a long rubber band to pull the helicopter up with a force that is approximately constant, but that would also not be quite as perfect as the more complex system which they have implemented. It would be curious to know if there was some really important reason to do it the way they have done it, or if people at JPL simply have a habit to always do things in the best way possible.

  • Ming Xuan Lee
    Ming Xuan Lee

    Wait, did the title changed?

  • Royal Thoughts
    Royal Thoughts

    Then why cant they use thrusts instead of fan blades ..

    • Hubert Marciniak
      Hubert Marciniak

      Thrusters would require a constant supply of fuel. Using rotors that are moved by electric motors ( powered by rechargeable batteries) is much more "fuel" and mass efficient.

  • Paulo J.
    Paulo J.

    Asians are on this project? How would ppl hate asians on this monumental event

  • Sammy Spaniel
    Sammy Spaniel

    This video takes on new significance now that the copter is on Mars ready to fly it's first mission.

    • Blake Evans
      Blake Evans

      Yesterday marks the first public video footage released of the propellers spin test!

  • Ivan’s Dirt Diaries
    Ivan’s Dirt Diaries

    Plot twist: Ingenuity was deployed yesterday and has survived its first night on the martian surface!!! Exciting times!!

    • Ace King
      Ace King

      Sol 55 still looking good

    • Br1ngTheActi0n

      @Deval Maheshwari any updates?

    • Deval Maheshwari
      Deval Maheshwari

      Plot twist twist: ingenuity failed its teest spin and now the flight has been pushed back

    • vyom bafna
      vyom bafna

      The 5 th day

  • Mimino 01
    Mimino 01

    ​It would be interesting to find out if there are any plans to send inflatable Zeppelin to the Mars , they could use Kevlar encased durable balloon and flexible solar panels for power , so is would be easier to observe larger areas

    • Captain Ahab
      Captain Ahab

      Vacuum zeppelins are possible on mars

  • Lucifer

    Why are humans spreading their waste onto other planes of existence. You humans are going to get wiped out. The Creator made a mistake by creating you pathetic lifeforms

    • Lucifer

      @Thomas farquhar within the darkness of the brain of humans... that beautiful organ they call the pineal gland... that's where you'll find the best dealer...

    • Thomas farquhar
      Thomas farquhar

      @Lucifer damn these must be some good drugs, where's your dealer

    • Lucifer

      @Thomas farquhar no.. trust me.. the new beings that exist amongst you now... we're nothing like you humans that we're generated within this matrix in the last 1000 years... We are the new race of hybrids... We dont like what this world and societies have turned into... We are here to start the New World... 1 that's automated without the flaws and mistakes of humans. Ordo Abchao.

    • Thomas farquhar
      Thomas farquhar

      Either you got so high you've forgotten what species you're a part of or you need therapy

    • Zeen Daniels
      Zeen Daniels

      @Lucifer You, you are on drugs (or need psychiatric help).

  • It's all lies
    It's all lies

    Looks like a drone not a helicopter

    • Le KikooLol
      Le KikooLol

      @Zeen Daniels I mean, nasa call it helicopter so why contradict nasa

    • Zeen Daniels
      Zeen Daniels

      It's both... Actually

    • Le KikooLol
      Le KikooLol

      still helicopter

  • Somraj Rao
    Somraj Rao

    The helicopter drone is going to fly on 11 april 2021😍😍

  • David Burton
    David Burton

    04:15 Wow, CBD did wonders for Gronk.

  • Тимур Сапаров
    Тимур Сапаров

    And now, few days left till take off. Congratulations to the creators of first helicopter on Mars!

    • vyom bafna
      vyom bafna

      Ir might have lift of by today

    • Minepaper Studio
      Minepaper Studio


  • BeActive Behappy
    BeActive Behappy

    Perseverance rover has already found signs of mOre intelligent life on Mars than a flat earth conference.

  • RS Nekmes
    RS Nekmes

    The Ingenuity on Mars has some really cool spring leg joints that are missing on the Ingenuity shown here.

  • klr 68
    klr 68

    in its first low level flights wont this kick up so much dust that photography would be impossible, and will the solar panels be affected by the dust

  • Aled Long
    Aled Long

    Anyone who flies RC helicopters knows this is pseudo scientific fantasy!

    • Aled Long
      Aled Long

      @Zeen Daniels You needed to hear, denied.

    • Zeen Daniels
      Zeen Daniels

      @Aled Long So you can't. You just needed to say that...

    • Aled Long
      Aled Long

      @Zeen Daniels Asperger's???

    • Aled Long
      Aled Long

      @Zeen Daniels Dude??? What are you hiding???

    • Zeen Daniels
      Zeen Daniels

      @Aled Long Dude... Just do the maths of shut up. Your choice.

  • Bongo Fury
    Bongo Fury

    Ah, to be paid billions to horse around with drones in space......... Nice work, if you can get it.

  • Bongo Fury
    Bongo Fury

    His sexy collar is his security pass. What’s his sign? “Right on, man....”

  • Matilde Mai Skousen
    Matilde Mai Skousen

    Is the baldes weight 4x35 g or 2x35 g? (2:57 min)

    • How Does it Really Work
      How Does it Really Work

      4x35 g, but that is just the "paddle" part without the root with the chinese weight, horn, and the bearing. With the hardware, the blades are about 4x45 g

  • About Space
    About Space

    Cool! I love watching this, thank you!


    They should have contacted Boston Dynamics and put a 2 leg robot on the surface instead of this rubbish.

  • Nasu

    Honestly... how f***ing awesome is that?!

  • ik

    they could use a spring mechanism (kinetic propultion ) so that its shoots up and take photographs from higher altitude

  • Naveen Kumar
    Naveen Kumar

    "it's swimming in a think soup" but in that same thick soup we could be able to fly drones and other. could you through some light on it. is it not like a very small, light weighted insect flying.

  • tonysshadow

    Amazing! my lifetime. I barely rememberJohn Glenn, then my first real introduction to death when Grissom, White, and Chaffee died in the fire. Now we are FINALLY back in space and not just pussy-footing around.

  • Chip Diamond
    Chip Diamond

    80 million dollar drone .....

  • Bobby Vincent
    Bobby Vincent

    15:35 maybe rovers will be the future companions to aircraft

  • Bobby Vincent
    Bobby Vincent

    Why does this copter look suspiciously like it's going to be playing golf instead of doing work on Mars?

    • Hubert Marciniak
      Hubert Marciniak

      ​@Bobby Vincent I guess humour doesn't always come through in ISdowns comments ;) Let's hope the craft will do ok, and Percy will deliver some sick pictures and vids of drone flying!

    • Bobby Vincent
      Bobby Vincent

      @Hubert Marciniak I was just making a joke about the golf club lookin legs. It's only in the air for like what 90s ....... it does what it does and I'm quite sure it will do a great job and be well worth the trouble of all the work they put in to get it there

    • Hubert Marciniak
      Hubert Marciniak

      @Bobby Vincent If the craft is light enough, then I suppose it doesn't need big beefy legs. Besides, it won't do any serious work. It's "only" goal is to test if such a drone/helicopter is a viable way of exploring Mars (and take a few pics along the way/test the navigation software). If it succeeds (meaning: it will be able to lift off, control it's flight and land), then it will create a path for future, more advanced crafts.

    • Bobby Vincent
      Bobby Vincent

      @Hubert Marciniak it's legs look like '5 wood' golf clubs

    • Hubert Marciniak
      Hubert Marciniak

      What is so suspicious about it?

  • MOLE

    This guy has unrestricted access to the entire world

  • Redem Legaspi
    Redem Legaspi

    Flying a helicopter on Mars proves that an atmosphere is present on the red planet.

    • Captain Ahab
      Captain Ahab

      ~1% atmosphere

    • Zeen Daniels
      Zeen Daniels

      Nothing new, really. The atmosphere of Mars is a fact known for more than a century now.

  • cris paredes
    cris paredes


  • valmont1702


  • Antero PH
    Antero PH

    Sound of helicopter: "Baaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaah" 😂


    Worst thing you can send to mars a helicopter.Worst thing contra rotation version for very obvious reasons.

    • Bop

      @BILL POWER ?


      @DarkLight 2.1 My own.

    • DarkLight 2.1
      DarkLight 2.1

      What video were you watching? LOL

  • Ethan Bondick
    Ethan Bondick

    The secretive debtor daily compare because fork ultrastructually cycle up a best step-sister. tough, vast grain